Common three-dimensional printing technology and application

1, common stereo printing

Among the three-dimensional printing technologies currently used, the most common three-dimensional printing technologies are ordinary three-dimensional printing, dynamic three-dimensional printing, and holographic three-dimensional printing.

Ordinary three-dimensional stereoscopic printing mainly adopts the method of arc-moving shooting, that is, taking the center point defined by the object as a center, and making a circular motion from the center point to the focal length of the photosensitive film. The cylindrical lens plate is directly attached to the front of the photosensitive plate, and moves randomly at random. Each exposure will focus a pixel under each half cylinder of the grating plate, finally covering the entire grid pitch, and the three-dimensional photograph can be obtained by rinsing. As with other printing methods, the three-dimensional printing process also includes separation, screening, and printing. It is worth noting that in the separation of three-dimensional printing, the number of scanning lines is generally over 400 lpi, and due to the fineness of the pixels of the stereoscopic image and the magnification effect of the cylindrical lens grating, finer meshes should be used for better prints. Carry on the screening. The angle of the screen in the three-dimensional printing should not be selected to be 0 degree. In addition, the screen angles of the C and K versions in the three-dimensional printing should be the same, and the density of the color ink in the field should be high. Ordinary three-dimensional printing overprinting accuracy is very high, generally using the PS version. The three-dimensional printing can be printed in different layouts, and the finished printed product can be provided with a three-dimensional effect after being covered with a cylindrical lens grating plate. Currently used cylindrical lens grating plate are hard plastic and soft plastic, the former mainly polystyrene, the latter mainly polyvinyl chloride. Prior to the compounding of the cylindrical lens, a cylindrical lens negative template needs to be manufactured according to relevant parameters, and then formed by edge pressing. Commonly used methods include flat pressing, legal sticking, and sticking.

Dynamic three-dimensional printing is an extension of ordinary three-dimensional printing, that is, printing a dynamic picture on the basis of printing a three-dimensional picture, as long as the change of viewing angle can produce dynamic. The principles and methods of producing dynamic three-dimensional prints are the same as ordinary three-dimensional prints. The three-dimensional printing of the manuscript is first performed in the three-dimensional motion printing. However, unlike the ordinary three-dimensional printing, the number of motions needs to be determined to design the manuscript. Each action has a picture, and the number of motions determines how many negative films are used. Dynamic three-dimensional printing manuscripts are now generally used desktop printing system for color separation, get multiple sets of separation film (female), the resulting film after the copy of the action of the screen together on a film, which requires step-by-step exposure, and finally The Yang pictures corresponding to the motion picture are obtained through the display and fixing, and then the printing, printing, and composite cylindrical lens plates are obtained to obtain the dynamic three-dimensional printed matter.

Holographic three-dimensional printing is a new three-dimensional printing technology that transforms interference fringes formed by laser photography into three-dimensional images and appears on a specific substrate. It is based on holography. In the 1980s, holographic three-dimensional printing technology entered the stage of promotion and application, and holographic three-dimensional printed materials began to become popular and gradually realize commercialization. Holographic printing is not printed with ink. Its printing is similar to that of conventional printing. Holographic three-dimensional printing must first take a holographic image. Before shooting, you must select the appropriate subject matter and its best arrangement in space. Pay attention to the influence of light. When the holographic image is not properly illuminated, it does not represent the recorded scene. Any of the features. The shooting of rainbow holograms is based on the diffraction characteristics of light. In the holographic three-dimensional printing, a softer photoresist material will be used, but it is not suitable for direct imprinting. Therefore, it is necessary to make an imprint template. A metal template is often used to transfer rainbow holographic image information and then Embossing on the press. The purpose of imprinting is to transfer the image information on the imprint template to a transparent film or a vacuum aluminized film at a certain temperature. Commonly used films for imprinting are PVC, PET, PS, PP, etc. The process of embossing is carried out according to the process of hot pressing → cooling → peeling. After embossing, vacuum aluminum plating is performed, mainly because holographic images can be directly viewed under white light. Vacuum aluminum plating is the process of atomizing and depositing aluminum filaments on an imprinted film under high vacuum conditions. At present, it is also possible to imprint directly with a film that has been plated with aluminum, and after that, it is necessary to apply a coating and a film to transfer the three-dimensional image information, and the process mainly includes two types of holograms, the pasting type and the hot stamping type. Processing.

2, the application of three-dimensional printing

The prints of three-dimensional images are rich in color and three-dimensional. With the development of the society and the improvement of people’s appreciation of printed matters, the use of three-dimensional printing will continue to increase.

Three-dimensional printing is a further development of stereo photography, and is a further exploration of stereoscopic display technology. Three-dimensional printing can be used for realistic reproduction of objects, with a very strong three-dimensional effect. The product's images are clear, rich in layers, and vivid in appearance. They are widely used in animation production, packaging and decoration, advertising, and interior decoration. In particular, holographic three-dimensional printing under the irradiation of natural light, can change the visual angle can see red, orange, yellow, green, blue, black, purple and other colors of the pattern, and has a three-dimensional effect, widely used in decorative, anti-counterfeit goods Packaging and printing.

Many printing companies in China are engaged in the development and research of three-dimensional printing technology, using modern scientific methods, using computers and other scientific and technological tools to creatively establish and develop three-dimensional printing engineering projects. Three-dimensional printing equipment and three-dimensional printing products have also been fully promoted to the market. This is a major innovation in the field of printing, and it is also an inevitable trend in the field of printing. Using three-dimensional printing equipment to produce three-dimensional graphic images, three-dimensional anti-counterfeiting trademark marks, three-dimensional rainbow materials and other all-round products, three-dimensional image effects have reached the world's leading level. The stereoscopic prints completed by the cylindrical lens method are widely used in corporate product packaging decoration, trademark anti-counterfeiting, product advertising pictures, advertising posters, artistic decoration, museum display window display, cultural landscape, natural scenery pictures, stationery, tourism Souvenirs, commemorative tickets, postcards, all kinds of congratulatory cards, business cards, signs, tags ... that is, all areas of the plane printing, three-dimensional printing can do. Stereoscopic printing has a bright future.

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